Dr. Sami Mahroum is the Founding Director of the INSEAD Innovation & Policy Initiative. Prior to INSEAD, Sami was a Senior Analyst at the OECD in Paris and the Research Director for Regional and International Innovation at Nesta in London. Over the course of his career, he worked as a researcher, a policy analyst and an advisor on innovation policy issues in half a dozen countries. He has contributed to the UK Innovation White Paper (2008), the OECD Innovation Strategy (2010), and the Europe 2010 Futures project. His research on the European brain drain provided the background research that led to the creation of the Brain Power Austria initiative and had influenced several EU Member States policies in this regard. Sami’s writings appeared in peer-reviewed journals as well as in the Financial Times, BusinessWeek and Harvard Business Review. He is also the author of the “Black Swan Start-Ups: Understanding the Rise of Successful Technology Business in Unlikely Places” (Palgrave, 2016) is member of Editorial Board of the journal Science & Public Policy. Sami has a PhD in Business and Social Studies from the German Armed Forces University in Hamburg, an MSc in Science & Technology Dynamics from the University of Amsterdam, and a BA in Political Science & Economic Development from the University Of Oslo, Norway. Sami is also an alum of the d-School: Institute of Design at Stanford.